The printing press
Johannes Gutenberg invented a printing press
process that, with refinements and increased mechanization, remained the principal means of printing until the late 20th century.
Ink was rolled over the surfaces of movable hand-set letters that were held in a wooden tray. The tray was then pressed against a sheet of paper for printing.
Early in the 15th century, Italian scholars had abandoned blackletter in favour of a more flexible script, commonly referred to as humanist
. It was based on Caroline miniscule script and ancient Roman capital letters.
Manutius was a Venetian printer. Aldus commissioned Francesco Griffo, an Italian punch-cutter (also known as Francesco da Bologna) to cut the punches for a new roman typeface. In 1495 Griffo created a typeface that was particularly elegant and innovative, characterised by sharply-contrasting upstrokes and downstrokes, capitals that were shorter than the long letters, and a weight that was distributed across a more vertical axis. It was used for the first time in Pietro Bembo’s De Aetna
, which Manutius published in 1495.
The linotype machine
The Linotype is a typesetting machine that works by creating one line of type at a time. It uses matrices, which are small brass units that have edges indented with characters that are assembled into lines to compose text. Once the matrix line is established, a line of type is automatically cast via a solid bar known as the Linotype slug. The operator types the information on the keyboard and the Linotype pulls type, which can then be printed.
There are four major components
that allow the Linotype machine to function properly: the magazine, the keyboard plus its parts, the casting mechanism, and the distributing mechanism. The matrices are contained within the magazines and they represent type cases. The keyboard functions to release the matrices in the desired order. The keyboard allows the operator to control the machine and compose the lines of text. Once everything is set with the keyboard functions, the rest of the process is automatic.
The monotype machine
Monotyping is a type of printmaking made by drawing or painting on a smooth, non-absorbent surface. The surface, or matrix, was historically a copper etching plate, but in contemporary work it can vary from zinc or glass to acrylic glass. The image is then transferred onto a sheet of paper by pressing the two together, usually using a printing-press. Monotypes can also be created by inking an entire surface and then, using brushes or rags, removing ink to create a subtractive image, e.g. creating lights from a field of opaque colour. The inks used may be oil based or water based. With oil based inks, the paper may be dry, in which case the image has more contrast, or the paper may be damp, in which case the image has a 10 percent greater range of tones.
For the Universal Exposition of 1900, the Imprimerie Nationale commissioned Jules Henaffe to recut the punches for a typeface
found in its archives, which appear to correspond to the original Garamont.
However his efforts to recreate typefaces led him to attribute to Garamont fonts that were, for the most part, the work of Jean Jannon, – late interpretations (circa 1620) of the original roman font. These errors would be corrected later. In the meantime, a number of type foundries used the Imprimerie Nationale’s model as the source of Garamond.
Monotype Garamond was the first of Stanley Morison’s celebrated typeface revival projects at the English Monotype Corporation. They re-created historical typefaces, including Garamond, for use with their machines, responding to the requirements of “hot metal typesetting”. In 1921, Lanston Monotype (US) issued its version of Garamond (Series 248), designed by Frederick William Goudy and cut by Robert Wiebking. The following year, another series (Series 156) was issued by monotype's British subsidiary.It was based on the model of the Imprimerie Nationale, and was very different from Goudy's version. Garamond Monotype Series 156 later became the Garamond that was installed on all personal computers.
First released by D. Stempel AG in 1925, Stempel Garamond™ was based on the Egenolff-Berner specimen of 1592 and was therefore a revival of the genuine Garamond types. It is one of the most famous Garamond interpretations, and since its introduction in 1925, it has been one of the most frequently used text typefaces for bookwork, especially in Germany. Stempel Garamond has its own unique temperament, with a rhythm and sharpness that set it apart from other Garamonds.
Garamond #3 was issued for linecasting machines by Linotype in 1936, and was derived from Morris Fuller Benton’s Garamond, which was initially released by the American Typefounders (ATF). The typeface was also distributed by Lettergieterei ‘Amsterdam,’ also know as Tetterode, in the Netherlands.
A prestigious typography review (The Fleuron) published in London by Stanley Morison, published a study by Beatrice Warde, writing under the pseudonym of Paul Beaujon. According to Warde, type adviser to the Monotype firm, the punches in the collections of the Imprimerie Nationale that were believed to be the work of Garamont were in fact cut by Jean Jannon around 1620. She located the original punches and their direct descendants in the Le Bé foundry in Paris, and in the Egenolff-Berner foundry in Frankfurt. In her article, she also questioned the origins of the "Estienne typefaces". Historical understanding of the Garamond faces was based on unclear and incomplete information, and Warde's article was able to clarify some of their origins.
The Garamond Type, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Sources Considered
Designed by Francesco Simoncini, he was invited by Giulio Einaudi to design a new typeface for his publishing house. Einaudi wanted a new face based on Garamond.
Phototypesetting is a method of setting type, rendered obsolete with the popularity of the personal computer and desktop publishing software, that uses a photographic process to generate columns of type on a scroll of photographic paper. Typesetters used a machine called a phototypesetter, which would quickly project light through a film negative image of an individual character in a font, through a lens that would magnify or reduce the size of the character onto film, which would collect on a spool in a light-tight canister. The film would then be fed into a processor, a machine that would pull the film through two or three baths of chemicals, where it would emerge ready for paste up.
A group of printing firms (D. Stempel AG, Linotype, and Monotype) wanted to create a new typeface, inspired by Garamond, that could be used in any of the various printing techniques then available: manual and mechanical typesetting, and phototypesetting. The task was entrusted to Jan Tschichold, he made an detailed study of the various shapes of Garamond, based on the Egenolff-Berner type specimen. He standardised its construction by removing anomalies characteristic of historic typefaces, thus making it more economical (and narrower). For the italic, he drew inspiration directly from a model of Granjon in the specimen.
Typesetting continued to dematerialise in the 1970s, when "classic" photographic techniques for exposing letters were replaced by cathode screens and, later, lasers. Photomatrices gave way to bitmaps, algorithms and pixels, which allowed typographers to precisely describe every aspect of a letter and to use computer technology to modify them. Letters became completely dematerialised with digital typography.
Typography was one of the first areas to be computerised.
In the first machines, each font was programmed separately, designed point by point. This painstaking work (for a result that was relatively mediocre) was hardly suitable for "non-standardised" typefaces like Garamond. The gentle curves and complex nuances of the humanist strokes could not be reproduced without sacrificing quality.
But these initial difficulties were quickly resolved, and today's digital technology can fathfully reproduce the design of each letter.
ITC Garamond was designed in 1977 by Tony Stan for ITC. This version has a taller x-height and tighter letterspacing, two elements that were very popular in New York advertising design during the 1970s.
Starting in 1984, and for nearly two decades, Apple's Garamond was the exclusive typeface for Apple Computer. It was the first digital Garamond. It was used to set every document issued by Apple, from advertising campaigns to user manuals to packaging. It was not an original design, but ITC Garamond that had been condensed to 80% and corrected to be easily readable on screen.
Designed by Robert Slimbach, the Roman weights are based on a true Garamond model, and the Italics are based on those of punchcutter Robert Granjon. Slimbach drew inspiration for his Adobe Garamond from a series of proofs in the collections of the Musée Plantin-Moretus in Antwerp, and the face is grounded in an in-depth study of historical sources.